Extending the concept of life in 15-minutes from neighborhood scale to building scale to:

  • reduce vehicular movements,
  • promote spatial and social connectivity towards a sustainable metropolitan city 
  • improve quality of life

    by mixed-use architecture incorporating proximity to services of daily necessities.


The topic to be influenced in the thesis is quality of life in populous metropolis. The nodes in system map are related to the topic and the connected nodes show the correlation between them. The “+” sign indicates positive correlation, and the “-” sign indicates negative correlation. The contributing factors to crowdedness in city are centralization of development, increased population density and urban migration. The project aims to tackle the existing urban problems and environmental problems, and intervene the issue of centralization of development through mixed-use architecture which provides proximity to services.


To further understand the causes of the problems in populous metropolises, an iceberg model makes it possible to see beyond the observable events, and uncover the deeper levels of observable trends, invisible forces and convictions. The intervention of the research will have effect on the level of the underlying structures.


A list of stakeholders that can be involved in the intervention is categorized according to their roles and functions. To evaluate the importance of the stakeholders, the stakeholders are then mapped according to their level of influence and level of interest.


To get a better understanding of how the stakeholders can contribute and what hurdles they need to overcome to implement the intervention, five stakeholders are selected and analyzed on how they can tackle the political, socio-economic and physical hurdles.


A timeline is created to plan the steps and process that need to be completed in order to achieve the goal — the prototype of mixed-use building adapts to different contexts and built in different districts in Shanghai.


The key takeaways from the seminar and next steps for the thesis project are concluded as below:


CIRCULAR ECONOMY SEMINAR II // Quality of Life in Metropolis is a project of IAAC, Institute for Advanced Architecture of Catalonia
developed at MAA02 in 2020/2021 by
Student: Ka Man Lee
Faculty: Nico Schouten + Tamara Streefland