Cyber Physical 3d Printing 

This research project aims to make 3d printing more adaptable with the help of sensors feed back, 3d scanning and AI. We have been 3d printing  on small scale from last many years but now 3d printing technology can solve the unaffordable housing issue on architectural scale. Where there is an opportunity of 3d printing buildings there are challenges also and one of them is buckling of 3d printed structures during 3d printing. On architectural scale repeating the whole process each time manually to fix the printing errors is cost prohibitive. So to minimize the 3d printing errors we can learn from the 3d printing errors themselves and let the system intelligent enough to avoid such circumstances which can cause them.

Why Concrete  – Present & Future Projection

Concrete is currently the most demanded material and the projection shows it will stay in the high demand so need to use it efficiently.


Cost Evaluation – Non-standard Concrete Structures

More than half of the total cost for non-standard concrete structure goes in Formwork Labor & Material

Evolution – AM for Concrete

With every year the demand for 3d printing concrete is increasing and the technology is getting matured.

Research Scope – Buckling in 3d printing

In this research the typology to be studied is column structures and their buckling during 3d printing process. There are lot of parameters which cause the structure to buckle during 3d printing i.e. temperature, humidity, path planning etc. From the past research in IaaC with LDM extrusion processes is that each time the 3d printing is impacted by the mix of the material. Assuming the material mix is not 100% uniform each time then the adaptable control of the 3d printing parameters with the help of sensors feed back and AI can minimize the errors as well. Said that material still needs to be well mixed to avoid the problem of material mix from the root.

Linear vs Proposed Workflow – Additive Manufacturing



3d Printing Test Setup

Robot used for the test is IaaC’s ABB – 120. The Pneumatic control, extrusion motor speed and robot speed are automated by imbedding the  switch commands in the g-code. Temperature and Humidity sensors are used to take environmental data during 3d printing to make a dataset.

 ABB 3d Printing – [Case 1]

Target height of the 3d printed model is 150mm and diameter is 40mm. Extrusion speed 25mm/s.



 ABB 3d Printing – [Case 2]

Target height of the 3d printed model is 150mm and diameter is 40mm. Extrusion speed 25mm/s.



ABB 3d Printing – [Case 3]

Target height of the 3d printed model is 300mm and diameter is 40mm. Extrusion speed 25mm/s.



Note: Research is continuing…

Cyber Physical 3d Printing  is a project of IaaC, Institute for Advanced Architecture of Catalonia developed at the MRAC-02 program in 2020/21 by:

Research Student: Mansoor Awais

Tutor: Alexandre Dubor, Aldo Sollazo